Solid Wall Insulation

More heat is lost through solid walls than through cavity walls – up to 45% of the heat in a solid walled home is lost through the walls. Insulating your solid walls can save you around £345 per year on your heating bills according to Energy Saving Trust studies.

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How it Works

There are two way of insulating solid walls:

  1. Internal Solid Wall Insulation – This applies the insulation to the inside of your home’s walls.
  2. External Wall Insulation – this applies the insulating material to the outside of your external walls.
    It will depend on the situation which is best – internal insulation is cheaper, but takes away living space and is slightly less effective. You may also save money by installing internal insulation at the same time as carrying out other decorating work.

Do I have Solid Walls?

Solid walls are external walls built as one wall without a cavity. This was the common building practice before the 1930’s.

  1. If you home has brick or stone external walls and was built prior to 1920 it probably has a solid wall.
  2. The way the bricks are laid can tell you; if there is a cavity the bricks tend to be all laid lengthways, whereas solid walls have bricks alternately laid length ways then end-on (across the wall rather than along it so that one end is on the internal side of the wall and the other on the external side)
  3. If you are in any doubt your installer will be able to confirm exactly what type of wall you have and recommend the most suitable method of insulation.

If you don’t think you have solid walls, remember that cavity walls can be insulated too. Find out more details about insulating Cavity Walls.

Will it work on my home?

Yes, but here are some considerations:

  • You should have a solid wall or a cavity wall that is not suitable for cavity wall insulation
  • You will need to decide which is best for you; internal or external insulation
  • Try to combine installation with other work such as re-rendering or internal decorating

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Internal wall insulation

There are two types of internal solid wall insulation:

– Insulation board

This involves attaching insulation board covered in plasterboard to your walls. This will typically be around 60mm in depth but can reach 100mm. The boards are attached with either plaster or adhesive and the joints between the boards are also sealed.

– Stud wall

Mineral wool is used to fill a metal or timber studwork frame attached to the wall, which is then covered in plaster. This plaster can be replaced with insulation board. The frame will need to be at least 120mm, as mineral wool is a less effective insulator than insulation board. A stud wall may be ideal if your wall’s surface is uneven.

Both types will be able to support attachments such as cupboard units. For either type you will have to remove all door frames, skirting boards and other fittings before installation and refit them afterwards. Internal insulation will make any wall-based damp problems worse, so you should sort these out before installation.

External wall insulation

External insulation involves attaching a layer of insulation material to the outside of your house and covering this with a layer of cladding or render. This layer can be finished in a number of ways – it can be covered with brick slips or tiles, pebble-dashed or painted. External insulation should only be fitted if the external wall is sound.

Pros and Cons

  • Internal insulation is generally cheaper to install but saves less money on energy bills
  • Internal insulation will cause more disruption to your home
  • Internal insulation will take up around 100mm of living space along all of your outer walls.
  • External insulation alters the appearance of your house
  • External insulation can increase the life of the wall by protecting the brickwork, and it will reduce draughts by filling cracks or gaps. It will also provide extra soundproofing.
  • External insulation will require planning permission if your home is a listed building or you live in a conservation area.

Both should:

  • Reduce condensation on internal walls if fitted correctly
  • Require good access to the wall for insulation
  • Significantly reduce heat loss – by over 40% in many cases
  • Be fitted by a professional installer

Ensure that your installer is a member of a recognised professional body. We will only recommend certified installers.

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Costs and Maintenance

The Energy Saving Trust estimates that the cost of installation in a 3 bedroom semi-detached house will be between £5,500 and £8,500 for internal insulation. It is substantially more for external insulation, at between £9,400 and £13,000. If you are already planning work to your home this cost can be incorporated in the cost of your renovations.

The ECO scheme is a new scheme funded by UK energy suppliers due to launch at the end of January 2013. It offers loans to partially or fully fund any solid wall insulation installation, regardless of your economic circumstances. You can register your interest for the scheme here:

Just like loft and cavity wall insulation, there is no maintenance over and above what you would have to do to walls of your home anyway.


The annual saving for a 3 bedroom semi would be in the region of £445, and more for External insulation, being up to £475. Some estimates are more but this will depend on your home.

For Landlords there are tax allowances of up to £1,500 for insulation projects.

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Are there any grants available for installing solid wall insulation?
The will be a grant scheme available for solid wall insulation under the ECO (Energy Company Obligation), the complementary grant scheme to the Green Deal. Under the ECO (Carbon Saving Obligation), any UK resident will be able to get their solid wall insulation installation either partially or fully funded. It's not yet clear how people should apply for this scheme, as the both the Green Deal and ECO have just launched. It's likely we'll know more in March (2013).
How much loft insulation do I need?
To meet current Building Regulations you need 270mm of mineral wool insulation - that's 100mm between the ceiling joists and 170mm laid over the joists.
I have lots of rubbish in my loft. Do I need to clear it out or will the installer do this for me?
Yes, you will need to clear the roof of any rubbish or stored objects before the insulation is installed.
My loft has been fitted with floorboards - will this cause a problem?
Not necessarily. You can lay the insulation once the floorboards have been taken up, and put the floorboards back over the insulation, or, if you prefer, you can have your insulation lain directly over the floorboards.
Do I need to provide extra ventilation to my loft space if I insulate it?
That depends on whether it is adequately ventilated at the moment. Increasing the amount of insulation in the loft can lead to condensation of water vapour on any timber there. If your loft is not properly ventilated your installer will advise you, and can install simple vents that will ensure an adequate air flow through the loft.
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